Tuesday, July 8, 2008

Lithuania History FDC

Lithuania FDC
Name: 1000th Anniversary of Lithuania
Date of Issue: 28 June 2008

3 Lt:
The first Ministers cabinet of Lithuania Republic was formed.1918.
3 Lt: The Constituent Assembly of Lithuania was invited.1920.
3 Lt: The museum of Kaunas was established.1922.
3 Lt: The land of Klaipeda in Lithuania structure.1923.
3 Lt: The highroad of Samogitia was opened.1939.
3 Lt: Vilnius was got back.

With the Act of the 16th of February 1918 declaring the independence of Lithuania the foundation process of an independent state started. One of the most important steps was the formation of the Cabinet of Ministers, the executive body. By order of the Presidium of the State Council, on the 11th of November 1918 Augustinas Voldemaras (1883-1942) formed the first Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Lithuania. It consisted of 9 Ministers responsible for the main spheres of life. Although the first Cabinet of Ministers had been functioning only for a period of one and a half month, it determined the later model of the executive body and its democratic development.

The legal background of the democratic republic was laid by the Constituent Assembly of the Republic of Lithuania elected during the general elections on the 14-15th of April 1920. 112 representatives were elected. The Constituent Assembly, active until the 1st of October 1922, passed a number of laws crucial for the country, including the one regarding the Land Reform (March 22, 1922). Also, it laid foundations of a modern parliamentary Lithuania.

After the Freedom Struggles and normalization of domestic life of the country, it was important to raise the general level of culture and bring up a national intelligentsia. This mission was entrusted to the University of Lithuania founded on the 16th of February 1922 in Kaunas. It symbolically continued the traditions of Vilnius University and was the main school of higher education during the interwar period. In the University of Lithuania, renamed to Vytautas Magnus University in 1930, the most prominent Lithuanian scientists of the interwar period worked.

The Baltic Sea Coast territories situated to the north from the river Nemunas, which had been ruled by Germans since the 13th century, through the efforts of the Allies, winners of the World War II, became Klaipėda Region detached from Germany and administrated by the latter. As approximately one half of residents considered themselves to be Lithuanians, Lithuania had an opportunity to demand to unite this territory to Lithuania. After a military and political operation carried out by the Republic of Lithuania on the 15th of January 1923, Klaipėda Region became a part of Lithuania. The results of the bravest action of the interwar Lithuania were recognized on the 16th of February 1923.

With Klaipėda Region Lithuania became a maritime state. However, the then situation could not change rapidly without the region's practical integration into Lithuania's economy. The development of Klaipėda Region was impossible without the connection of local roads with the transport network of Lithuania. In 1932, the Port of Klaipėda was connected with Šiauliai by a railway line. Within the period 1934-1938, Žemaičiai Road of 195,5 kilometers length connected Klaipėda with the temporary capital Kaunas. It enabled to integrate Klaipėda Region to the economic life of Lithuania.

During the interwar period, Vilnius Region was the main source of conflicts between Lithuania and Poland. With the deployment of force the conflict had been settled on behalf of Poland, but Lithuania had never reconciled to fact of losing its capital. Lithuania received an opportunity to recover the region at the beginning of World War II, when Poland was invaded and divided by the Nazi Germany and communist Soviet Union. On the 10th of October 1939, Lithuania had to accept Vilnius from the Soviet Union, which also imposed its military forces. The appearance of the latter in Lithuania marks the beginning of loss of the country's independence.

Comment: I must recognize this is a very great series to review the Lithuania History. But the face value of this sheet is too too too expensive. 9.90 Lt is enough to send an air registered mail from Lithuania to China. It totally has 18 Lt on this sheet. Because the Lithuania Post doesn't permit to use the stamp to pay the A.R. charge. I waste 8.1 Lt postage. :(

1000th Anniversary of Lithuania Series FDCs
2007, 2008, 2009.

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