Monday, February 4, 2008

Russia Nobel Laureates FDC

Russia FDC
The Nobel Laureates
Issue date: 2008 January 22nd

Design: from left to right
6.00: L.D. Landau (1908-1968)
Lev Davidovich Landau (Russian language: Ле́в Дави́дович Ланда́у) (January 22, 1908 – April 1, 1968) was a prominent Soviet physicist who made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics. His accomplishments include the co-discovery of the density matrix method in quantum mechanics, the quantum mechanical theory of diamagnetism, the theory of superfluidity, the theory of second order phase transitions, the Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity, the explanation of Landau damping in plasma physics, the Landau pole in quantum electrodynamics, and the two-component theory of neutrinos. He received the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physics for his development of a mathematical theory of superfluidity that accounts for the properties of liquid helium II at a temperature below 2.17 K (−270.98 °C). More...

6.00: I.M. Frank (1908-1990)
Ilya Mikhailovich Frank (Russian : Илья́ Миха́йлович Франк) (October 23, 1908 – June 22, 1990) was a Soviet winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1958 jointly with Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov and Igor Y. Tamm, also of the Soviet Union. He received the award for his work in explaining the phenomenon of Cherenkov radiation.

Frank graduated from the Moscow State University in 1930. In 1934 Cherenkov discovered that light is emitted by charged particles traveling at very high speeds through water. Frank and Tamm provided the theoretical explanation of this effect, which occurs when the particles travel through an optically transparent medium at speeds greater than the speed of light in that medium. This discovery resulted in the development of new methods for detecting and measuring the velocity of high-speed nuclear particles and became of great importance for research in nuclear physics.

Frank's work also included collaboration with Cherenkov and Tamm in research on electron radiation. Frank also specialized in the study of gamma rays and neutron beams. He became head of the department of physics at the Moscow State University in 1944 and was made a member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1946. More...

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